The judgment was appealed before the Appeals Chamber, which issued its judgment on 1 June THE PROSECUTOR v. JEAN-PAUL AKAYESU Case No. ICTRT. JUDGEMENT [ ] 1. INTRODUCTION [ ] 6. [ ] “The Prosecutor of the International. I Translation certified by LCSS, ICTR. HAG(A)Ol (E) v. JEAN-PAUL AKA YESU. JUDGMENT. ENGLISH. Original: ENGLISH/ FRENCH.

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Appeals Chamber, paras Who are the beneficiaries of the IHL of non-international armed conflicts?

ICC – Legal Tools record: Judgement (The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu)

This page was last edited on 1 Decemberat Do you agree with the Chamber when it rules that a judgmment committed with the intention to destroy part of a specific group constitutes genocide? As mayor, Akayesu was responsible for performing executive functions and maintaining order in Taba, meaning he had command of the communal police and any gendarmes assigned to the commune.

The distinction pertaining to situations of conflicts of a non-international character emanates from the differing intensity of the conflicts. Guilty of Crime against Humanity Murder [ He was the mayor of Taba commune in Gitarama prefecture from April until June Evidence presented in relation to paragraphs of the Indictment, namely the testimony of Major-General Dallaire, has shown there to have been a civil war between two groups, being on the one side, the governmental forces, the FAR, and on the other side, the RPF.

The conventional definition of racial group is based on the hereditary physical traits often identified with a geographical region, irrespective of linguistic, cultural, national or religious factors.

In the opinion of the Appeals Chamber, the Trial Chamber erred in requiring that a special relationship should be a separate condition for triggering criminal responsibility for a violation of Article 4 of the Statute. It has been shown that there was a conflict between, on the one hand, the RPF, under the command of General Kagame, and, on the other, the governmental forces, the FAR.

The victims in each paragraph charging genocide were members of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. The victim of the act is therefore a member of a group, chosen as such, which, hence, means that the victim of the crime of genocide is the group itself and not only the individual.

ICTR | United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

The Chamber considers that it is possible to deduce the genocidal intent inherent in a particular act akayesy from the general context of the perpetration of other culpable acts systematically directed against that same group, whether these acts were judgemnt by the same offender or by others.


The four Geneva Conventions — as well as the two Additional Protocols — as stated above, were adopted primarily to protect the victims as well as potential victims of armed conflicts.

Thus, for a crime of genocide to have been committed, it is necessary that one of the acts listed under Article 2 2 of the Statute be committed, that the particular act be committed against a specifically targeted group, judgmnt being a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.

Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group paragraph e With respect to forcibly transferring children of the group to another group, the Chamber is of the opinion that, as in the case of measures intended judgmetn prevent births, the objective is not only to sanction a direct act of forcible physical transfer, but also to sanction acts of threats or trauma which would lead to the forcible transfer of children from one jydgment to another.

How do you interpret Art. Situations of internal disturbances are not covered by international humanitarian law. Moreover, all the offences enumerated under Article 4 of the Statute constituted crimes under Rwandan law in Guilty of Crime against Humanity Rape Count Was the Court correct to argue in its conclusion that at the time when Akayesu committed his crimes, Art. Although ICTY Appeals Chamber has, on several occasions, addressed the issue of the interpretation of common Article 3, it should be noted that it has never found it necessary to circumscribe the category of persons who may be prosecuted under Article 3.

Must the State of which the accused is a national be a party to the Convention on Genocide? Because of the principle of nullum crimen sine lege?

This consequently rules out situations of internal disturbances and tensions. Paras to and Verdict The nature of the conflict As aforesaid, it will not suffice to establish that as the criteria of Common Article 3 have akayesh met, the whole of Article 4 of the Statute, hence Additional Protocol II, will be applicable.

ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu

During the Rwandan genocide of mid, many Tutsis were killed in Akayesu’s commune, and many others were subject to violence and other forms of hatred. It has already been proved beyond reasonable doubt that there was an armed conflict not of an international character between the Government of Rwanda and the RPF in at the time of the events alleged in the Indictment.


The class of perpetrators [ N. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Here is the relevant section akahesu the September United Nations report: International humanitarian law applies from the initiation of such armed conflicts and extends beyond the cessation of hostilities until [ Would this mean that the extermination of other groups such as handicapped people, some political groups and homosexuals by the Nazi regime would be qualified as a crime against humanity but not as genocide?

Does the ICTR have the jurisdiction to prosecute judgmejt who committed genocide by virtue of its Statute alone?

Genocide Article 2 of the Statute 6. If so, where are those acts criminalized? Common Article 3 and other rules in other parts of the country i.

Thus, it would not be necessary for the Chamber to determine the precise nature of the conflict, this having already been pre-determined by the Security Council. Affirms the verdict of guilty entered against Jean-Paul Akayesu of all the counts on which he was convicted and the sentence of life imprisonment handed down, [ What is the relevance of the qualification of the conflict to the case? It is required as a constituent element of certain offences and demands that the perpetrator have the clear intent to cause the offence charged.

At least Tutsis were killed in Taba between April akzyesu and the end of June,while he was still in power.

The trial is the subject of the documentary film, The Uncondemned. It should be stressed that the ascertainment of the intensity of a non-international conflict does not depend on the subjective judgment of the parties to the conflict. As regards individual criminal responsibility for serious violations of Common Article 3, the ICTY has already affirmed this principle judgmdnt the Tadic case.

Thus, if an offence, as per count 15, is charged under both Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II, it will not suffice to apply Common Article 3 and take for granted that Article 4 of the Statute, hence Additional Protocol II, is therefore automatically applicable.

Such a finding is prima facie not without reason. The militia killed them with clubs, machetes, small axes and sticks. Similarly, the Chamber notes that the ICRC commentary on Common Article 3 suggests useful criteria resulting from the various amendments discussed during the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva,inter alia: